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Friday, 3 February 2017

Peru

The Peruvian territory was home to the Inca Empire, the largest state in Pre-Columbian America.

The Incas were a well-organized Indian civilization that began the city of Cuzco (now called Cusco).] Beginning in the 1400s, they defeated many nearby tribes and built an empire in the Andes.

The citadel of Machu Picchu, an iconic symbol of pre-Columbian Peru. By Martin St-Amant

The Spanish Conquistador Francisco Pizarro kidnapped and killed the Inca ruler in 1532, even after his people paid a huge amount of treasure for his release.

Three years later, Pizarro founded Ciudad de los Reyes, present-day Lima, Peru, as the capital of the lands he conquered for the Spanish Crown.

The Incas fought the Spanish for many years, but the last Inca king was killed in 1572. The Spanish Empire stablished a Viceroyalty, which included most of its South American colonies.

The Peruvian stratovolcano Huaynaputina lies in Southern Peru's Moquegua Region, 50 miles (80 kms) southeast of Arequipa. Huaynaputina exploded on February 19, 1600 in the most violent eruption in the recorded history of South America.

Ash falling on the city of Arequipa in 1600

One hour after the eruption, ash began to fall from the sky, and within 24 hours, Arequipa was covered with 25 centimetres (10 in) of ash. In total, the volcano killed more than 1500 people, and ash buried ten villages. The atmospheric spike of acid as a result of the eruption was higher than that of Krakatau. The explosion had effects on climate around the Northern Hemisphere (Southern Hemispheric records are less complete), where 1601 was the coldest year in six centuries, leading to a famine in Russia. Regional agricultural economies took 150 years to recover fully.

During the period in the early 19th century when ideas of political autonomy spread throughout Spanish America,, Peru remained the Spanish government headquarters; it was the last territory to secure independence following the Battle of Ayacucho on December 9, 1824.

Battle of Ayacucho

After achieving independence, Peru kept a low military profile until the 1870s, when its raw and maritime resources had been depleted, and it embarked on a railroad-building program that helped but also bankrupted the country. On April 5, 1879, Peru entered the War of the Pacific against Chile over the nitrate fields of the Atacama Desert. By 1883, Peru had been defeated and the country had lost three provinces.

Dead bodies of a Peruvian gun crew are viewed after the Battle of Chorrillos

American explorer Hiram Bingham re-discovered Machu Picchu, then thought to be the "Lost City of the Incas" in the Peruvian Andes on July 24, 1911. It is now a major tourist attraction.

In 1950, General Odría modified the national flag to its current form, removing the coat of arms from the civil flag, since it was used de facto, being easier to make.


Peru suffered a terrible guerrilla war in the 1980s. when the communist (Maoist) Shining Path tried to take over the country. But after the leader of the group was captured in 1992, Shining Path ceased to be a threat.

FUN PERU FACTS

The area above Machu Picchu is a no fly zone.

Peru is the only country whose name in English can be typed on a single row of a normal keyboard.

Peru is one of three four-letter countries with a four-letter capital (Lima). Fiji (capital, Suva) and Togo (Lomé) also share that distinction.

Peru is the only country with place names that begin with a double-Q (Qquea, Qquecquerisca and Qquero are all places in Peru).


After the country experienced chronic inflation, the Peruvian currency, the sol, was replaced by the Inti in mid-1985. That was then replaced by the nuevo sol, a modern relic of the sun worship of the ancient Incas, in 1991.

The alpaca (Vicugna pacos) comes mainly from Peru and is bred specifically for its fiber. Alpaca fiber is used for making knitted and woven items, similar to wool, which comes in more than 52 natural colors.

Peru is the world's second largest exporter of asparagus after China, with 383,144 tonnes in 2013.

On December 25 of each year, the inhabitants of Chumbivilcas Province, near Cuzco in Peru celebrate 'Takanakuy'. The festival consists of people settling grudges from the past year by fist fighting, then everybody dances and drinks.

Source Daily Express

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