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Monday, 2 November 2015

Kidney

HISTORY

The only occurrence of the world 'kidney' in Shakespeare is in Merry Wives of Windsor. At the time, the word 'kidney' often referred to someone's temperament, which is why Falstaff referred to "as man of my kidney".

A physician, Wilhelm Kolff, constructed in 1943 the first kidney dialysis machine in wartime Holland and treated his first patient with it. The device was made of aluminium, wood, and wet cellophane, in the form of a rotating drum.

The first human kidney transplant was performed by Dr. Richard Lawler in Illinois on June 17, 1950. The patient was Ruth Tucker, a 44-year-old woman with polycystic kidney disease, Although the donated kidney was rejected ten months later, the intervening time gave Tucker's remaining kidney time to recover and she lived another five years.

Dr Richard H Lawler

The first successful kidney transplants between living patients were undertaken was performed by Dr. Joseph E. Murray at the Peter Bent Brigham Hospital in Boston on December 23, 1954. Murray and his assistants removed one of Robert Herrick's kidneys and grafted it into his twin brother, Richard, who was dying of kidney failure. Richard Herrick made a successful recovery and lived another eight years. For this and later work, Dr. Murray received the Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1990.



The first successful kidney transplantation in the United Kingdom occurred on October 30, 1960, when Michael Woodruff performed one between identical twins at the Edinburgh Royal Infirmary.

In 2013, 16,898 kidney transplant operations were performed in the USA.

One in five kidneys donated in the US are thrown away because a suitable recipient can’t be found.

THE HUMAN KIDNEY

There are 18 mentions of kidneys in the King James Bible, 14 of which are in Leviticus. None are for the singular 'kidney'.

Each of our two kidneys is about 4.5 inches long and weighs about five ounces.

By Madhero88 - Own workReferenceshere, CC BY 3.0, $3
                                                     

The average person's kidneys account for only about half of a percent of their total body weight.

The main functions of the kidneys are blood purification and waste elimination

Every day, our kidneys filter about 50 gallons of blood through their 140 miles of tubes.

Our total blood supply is filtered by the kidneys about once every five minutes.

Our kidneys receive between 20 and 25 per cent of the blood pumped by the heart.

Kidneys produce 1.5 litres of urine a day to rid the body of toxins and waste matter.

In a lifetime, the kidneys clean more than one million gallons of water, enough to fill a small lake.



In 2003, doctors in Latvia reported a case of a man with four kidneys.

Dr. Fariborz Bagheri of Dubai Hospital, removed in 2017 a 4.25 kg (9 lb 5.91 oz) non-functional kidney from Ahmed Saeed Mohammed Omar who was suffering from Polycystic Kidney Disease. It was confirmed by The Guinness Book of Records to be the largest ever human kidney.

When you get a kidney transplant they usually leave your original kidneys in your body and put the third one lower in your pelvic area.

KIDNEYS IN ANIMALS

In snakes, the right kidney is closer to the head than the left kidney.

The kidneys of cats are so efficient, they can survive on a diet consisting only of meat, with no additional water, and can even re-hydrate by drinking seawater.

FUN KIDNEY FACTS

Nephrite, a form of jade, is named after the Greek for kidney, Nephros, as it was thought effective in treating kidney disease.

'Renal' means pertaining to the kidneys; 'reniform' means kidney-shaped.

There is a desperately poor Nepalese village called Hokshe where out of the population of 300, about 70 have sold their kidneys for money.

Iran is the only country in the world where it is legal to sell your kidneys — the government regulates the market. It is estimated that 1,400 Iranians sell one of their kidneys annually.

Kidney Island in the Falklands was given that name because of its shape.

Source Daily Express

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