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Saturday, 30 July 2016

Mumbai

HISTORY

The seven islands that form Mumbai were originally home to communities of fishing colonies. The islands were ruled by successive kingdoms and indigenous empires before the arrival of Portuguese settlers. They were ceded to the Portuguese by The Treaty of Bassein on December 23, 1534

At the time, the cession of Mumbai (or Bombay as the place was named then) appeared to be of minor consequence. It gained a crucial importance when the place passed from the Portuguese to the English in 1661 as part of the dowry of the Portuguese Catherine of Braganza, when she married King Charles II.

In 1687, the English East India Company transferred its headquarters from Surat to Bombay. Following the transfer, Bombay was placed at the head of all the Company's establishments in India. as a result,  Bombay began to grow into a major trading town, and received a huge influx of migrants from across India

Ships in Bombay Harbour (c. 1731). 
Bombay emerged as a significant trading town during the mid-18th century. The Hornby Vellard was a project to build a causeway uniting all seven islands of Bombay into a single island with a deep natural harbor. The project was started by the governor William Hornby in 1782 and all islands were linked by 1838. Along with construction of major roads and railways, the reclamation project, completed in 1845, transformed Bombay into a major seaport on the Arabian Sea.


The Mumbai Stock exchange is the oldest exchange in Asia. Its history dates back to 1855, when five stockbrokers would gather under banyan trees in front of Bombay's Town Hall.

The first horse-drawn bus made its début in the city of Bombay on May 9, 1874 traveling two routes.

More than 100,000 inhabitants of Bombay were killed on June 6, 1882 when a cyclone in the Arabian Sea pushing huge waves into the harbor.

Mahatma Gandhi tried to establish a law practice in Bombay in the 1890s, but had limited success. At the time time, the legal profession was overcrowded in India, and Gandhi was not a dynamic figure in a courtroom.

The first session of the Indian National Congress was held in Bombay from December 28-31, 1885.
During the early 20th century Bombay became a strong base for the Indian independence movement.

First session of the Indian National Congress in Bombay 

Upon India's independence in 1947 the city was incorporated into Bombay State.

In 1960, following the Samyukta Maharashtra movement, a new state of Maharashtra was created with Bombay as the capital.

The Government of India officially changed the English name to Mumbai in November 1995. The name Mumbai is derived from Mumbā or Mahā-Ambā—the name of the patron goddess (Kuladevi) Mumbadevi of the native Agri, Koli and Somvanshi Kshatriya communities. It means "mother" in the Marathi language, which is the official language of Maharashtra.


The temple of local Hindu goddess Mumbadevi, from whom the city of Mumbai derives its name. By Magiceye Wikipedia

Mumbai received 99.5cm of rain (39.17 inches) within 24 hours on July 26, 2005, resulting in floods killing over 5,000 people and bringing the city to a halt for over two days.

FUN FACTS

Mumbai is the most populous city in India and the ninth most populous agglomeration in the world, with an estimated city population of 18.4 million.

The Mumbai Suburban Railway system carries more than 6.99 million commuters on a daily basis. It has the highest passenger densities of any urban railway system in the world.

It has the highest GDP of any city in South, West, or Central Asia.

Mumbai accounts for 25% of industrial output, 40% of sea trade, and 70% of capital transactions to India's economy.

Mumbai, gateway to India

Bollywood, the Hindi film industry based in Mumbai, produces around 150–200 films every year. The name Bollywood is a blend of Bombay and Hollywood.

Breathing in Mumbai for one day is equivalent to smoking two and a half packs of cigarettes.

Dabbawalas are a team of couriers that deliver 200,000 hot meals a day to offices in Mumbai. With an error rate of one in 6 million, they're the most efficient delivery system in the world.

There are more curry houses in London than in Mumbai.

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