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Saturday, 11 March 2017

Plastic surgery

Hindu physicians in India practiced the first plastic surgery around 600BC. They created new noses for people whose real noses had been amputated, a punishment often applied for such offences as adultery. The physicians cut triangular pieces of skin from the patient's cheek and sewed the graft in place, covering the nasal opening. The patient then breathed through reeds placed in their nostril.

The first face-lift was performed by Eugene Hollander on "a victim of the arts of feminine persuasion" in 1901 in Berlin.

The father of modern plastic surgery is generally considered to have been Sir Harold Gillies (June 17, 1882 – September 10, 1960). A New Zealand otolaryngologist working in London, he developed many of the techniques of modern facial surgery in caring for soldiers suffering from disfiguring facial injuries usually from gunshot wounds during the First World War.

Walter Yeo, a sailor injured at the Battle of Jutland, before and after plastic surgery in 1917

A new hospital devoted to facial repairs was developed at Sidcup, London. The Queen's Hospital opened in June 1917 and with its convalescent units providing over 1,000 beds. There Gillies and his colleagues developed many techniques of plastic surgery as they sought to repair the wounds and deformities soldiers suffered in the war. These new procedures included better artificial limbs and improved skin grafts.

More than 11,000 operations were performed on over 5,000 men at The Queen's Hospital, which later became Queen Mary's Hospital.

The Queen's Hospital was located at Frognal House, the birthplace and property of Thomas Townshend, Lord Sydney after whom Sydney, Australia was named.

Dutch surgeon Johannes Esser perfected the skin graft inlay technique used by Harold Gillies on wounded soldiers during World War Two.

Cosmetic face-lifts became commonplace in the twenties. In Paris there was even the "lunchtime face-lift".

Plastic surgery soon entered popular culture. The 1929 song "I'm A Gigolo," written by Cole Porter and recorded by Leslie Hutchinson, had these lines: "Go to one of those nightclub places. And you’ll find me stretching my braces. Pushing ladies with lifted faces round the floor."

By the beginning of the 21st century cosmetic plastic surgery had become hugely popular. Women regularly spent $100 (£70) for a head of highlights and popped out in their lunch hour to have a $300 (£200) botox injection.

Dr.  Donda West, the mother of rapper Kanye West, tragically died at the age of 58 on November 10, 2007 due to heart problems resulting from her cosmetic surgery. As a result,  Governor Schwarzenegger signed the "Donda West Law" legislation making it mandatory to prove wellbeing prior to undergoing cosmetic surgery.

Dr Donda West

Cindy Jackson, a Londoner who hails from the American Midwest, holds the world record for undergoing the most cosmetic surgery procedures. By 2011 she had had $100,000 in cosmetic procedures, including three facelifts, two nose operations, two eyelifts, liposuction, lip and cheek implants, knee, waist, abdomen and thigh liposuction, and chin bone reduction.

In 2015 Cindy Jackson founded the International Association of Aesthetic Consultants™ and began the only training program in the world for certified Aesthetic Consultants, the IAAC Masterclass.

Brazilian doctors have been using fish skin to treat burn victims. The piscine layer of tissue is applied to a burn in a similar fashion to skin grafts. Because fish skin is so high in collagen, it's naturally beneficial for burn recovery.

Seoul, South Korea is the plastic surgery capital of the world, where one-third of the women have gone under the knife.

India has the oldest plastic surgery patients in the world — more than 54 per cent who undergo operations are over 50.

Source Daily Mail

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