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Friday, 5 August 2016

Music

HISTORY

The word "music" comes the sacred Muses, Zeus' daughters, who were the goddesses of the arts in Greek mythology. Numbering nine, each of them presided over one specific form of literature, science or art. All that the word signifies is that the art it names "belongs to the Muses." Museum and mosaic come from the same word.

In Greek mythology, the nine muses were the inspiration for many creative endeavors

Evidence of music-making dates back tens of thousands of years  Flutes have been discovered, carved from bones in which lateral holes have been pierced.

Some of the first musical instruments are known to have come from the Neolithic era (approximately 8000-2300 BC) in Scandinavia. These included the mouth bow, an ancient jews-harp which was made of mountain ash and strung with chewed, plaited elk tendon; the bone tube, which was an end-blown flute made of hollow bird bones; and the scraper, a percussion device made of animal thigh bones with notches cut into it.

Jubal, was the first recorded musician in the Bible (Genesis 4:21), and he made and played both stringed and wind instruments.

The earliest tuneable instrument, the stringed harp, was first plucked in modern-day Iraq in around 4,500 BC.

The Ancient Chinese made use of the pentatonic scale. They are credited with being the first to develop a science of acoustics and a theory of music.

Hieroglyphics depict music as important to the Ancient Egyptian society; various instruments shown in use; Egyptian music influenced later music of the Greeks, Hebrews and early Christians.

Musicians of Amun, Tomb of Nakht, 18th Dynasty, Western Thebes

A cuneiform hymn from Sumeria dated to around 800 BC is the earliest known written music from the west .

Music was an important part of social and cultural life in Ancient Greece. Musicians and singers played a prominent role in Greek theater and mixed-gender choruses performed for entertainment, celebration, and spiritual ceremonies

A painting on an ancient Greek vase depicts a music lesson (c. 510 BCE.

The first known musical contests were held as an act of religious devotion in the amphitheater of Apollo's temple. Music became a part of the Greek Pythian Games in 586BC.

In 1250 Franco of Cologne wrote Ars cantus mensurabilis, a work which was widely circulated and copied. Composition of Franconian motets, multi-lingual, layered compositions based on the ideas of Franco of Cologne, were soon widespread in France

Philippe de Vitry published the Ars nova, from which the era derives its name in 1322, describing the new (mainly French) musical style as already being practiced. Three years later, Pope John XXIII condemned modern music, such as the ars nova, in a papal bull and prohibited the playing of contrapuntal music in churches.

In mid 1550s England, printers of broadside ballads were required to register with London's Stationer's Company and pay four pence for each ballad they produce.

The first English book of printed music was published in 1611, The Parthenia (The Virgin) comprises 22 songs by composers such as William Byrd and Orlando Gibbons. The first copy was presented to Elizabeth, the daughter of James I of England. It was essentially music for the virginal.

The oldest musical organization in the United States, the Old Stoughton Musical Society was founded on November 7, 1786. 25 names are listed in the singer's group's first membership journal. The first music collection the musical society purchased was The Worcester Collection of Sacred Harmony compiled by Isaiah Thomas, which contained the first American printing of the "Hallelujah Chorus" from Handel's Messiah.


138 singing teachers traveled to Boston to attend the first music convention in 1838.

The study of orchestration as a discipline separate from composition originated in the 19th century, when one of the most influential treatises was written on the subject by Hector Berlioz in 1843. His book Treatise on Instrumentation became a standard reference work.

Thomas Edison accidentally invented the phonograph in 1877 while trying to record telegraph signals. His company was considerably late to become involved in the recorded music business as his intention was to market it as a business dictation machine. The concept of recorded music hadn't crossed his mind. However, by 1890 Edison was recording regimental bands playing songs such as "The Old Oaken Bucket".

Thomas Edison with his second phonograph, photographed by Mathew Brady in Washington, April 1878

The American Society of Composers, Authors and Publishers was established in New York City in 1914 to protect the copyrighted musical compositions of its members.

The oldest known recording of computer-generated music was the work of a Ferranti Mark 1 computer, recorded in the autumn of 1951 at the University of Manchester. The machine made its scratchy way through "Baa Baa Black Sheep," "God Save the King" and at least a little bit of "In the Mood."

The world's longest running music show Top of the Pops played its final broadcast on BBC on July 26, 2006. It had debuted on Wednesday January 1, 1964 at 6:35 pm.


FUN FACTS

According to University of Helsinki research, babies can recognize music for up to four months after birth.

"Eargasm" describes the chill and tingling sensation down your spine when listening to very good music.

Certain types of music can reduce anxiety in dogs, which can be useful during separation, fireworks, and thunderstorms. In a study when solo piano at 50-60 bpm was played, 85% became more calm, and over half of the dogs went to sleep.

Here is a list of songs about music

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