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Tuesday, 25 August 2015

Internet

HISTORY

J.C.R. Licklider, a Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) researcher and professor, outlined his vision of a Galactic Network of computers that allowed users to gather data and access programs anywhere in the world in a series of papers. The first his seminal paper on Man-Computer Symbiosis written in 1960, foreshadowed interactive computing. The second, On-Line Man Computer Communication, was published two years later and took the Galactic Network idea further, promoting the concept of social interaction through the networking of computers.  Licklider's Galactic Network concept proved to be influential in early development of the ARPANET.

The first-ever computer-to-computer link was established by the United States Department of Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency" (DARPA) on ARPANET, the precursor to the Internet on October 28, 1969. UCLA student programmer Charley Kline sent the first message from one computer to another on that day.

Charley Kline sent 1st message from one computer to another, recorded here Wikipedia

The first thing ever sold on the internet was a bag of weed. In the early 1970s Stanford students used ARPANET accounts at Stanford University's Artificial Intelligence Laboratory to engage in a commercial transaction with their counterparts at Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The students used the network to quietly arrange the sale of an undetermined amount of marijuana.

CompuServe launched the first consumer internet service on September 24, 1979. It dominated the field during the 1980s and remained a major player through the mid-1990s, when it was sidelined by the rise of services such as AOL with monthly subscriptions rather than hourly rates.


In 1983 the ARPANET officially changed its core networking protocols from NCP to TCP/IP, marking the beginning of the Internet.

The Internet's Domain Name System was created in 1985. The first domain ever registered was Symbolics.com on March 15, 1985.  It was registered by the Symbolics Computer Corporation in Massachusetts. The symbolics.com domain was purchased by XF.com in 2009.


The Morris worm, the first internet-distributed computer worm to gain significant mainstream media attention, was launched from MIT in 1988.

Tim Berners-Lee released files describing his idea for the World Wide Web, a publicly available service on the Internet on August 6, 1991. This date also marked the debut of the Web as a publicly available service on the Internet, although new users could only access it after August 23rd.

WorldWideWeb, c. 1993

The first recorded use of 'surfing' as a mode of using the internet is attributed to internet pioneer Mark McCahill, who used the phrase in February 1992.

The term was popularized a few months later by the upstate New York librarian Jean Armour Polly, aka “Net Mom."  Polly was the author of an article called "Surfing the INTERNET", published in the University of Minnesota Wilson Library Bulletin in June, 1992.

Oscar Nierstrasz at the University of Geneva wrote a series of Perl scripts that periodically mirrored these pages and rewrote them into a standard format. This formed the basis for W3Catalog, the web's first primitive search engine, released on September 2, 1993. The search site lasted for about three years before more modernized search engines began appearing.

In 1993 CERN announced World Wide Web protocols would be free.

In December 1993 there were just 623 websites on the internet.


WXYC, the student radio station of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, provided the world's first internet radio broadcast in 1994.

It took radio broadcasters 38 years to reach an audience of 50 million, TV 13 years, and the Internet just four years.

David Bowie's "Telling Lies" was released on his website in 1996, the first single by a major recording artist released exclusively on the Internet. Over 300,000 people downloaded the original Internet-only release.

In Britain, Tesco became the first supermarket in 1996 to offer Internet shopping and within a few years, housewives all over the world could buy groceries without ever leaving their homes.

The first recorded use of the term 'silver surfer' for an over-50 browsing the internet was in 1997.

The number of worldwide Internet users increased 566% between 2000 and 2012.

In 2010, Finland became the first country to make internet access a legal right.

100% of Iceland's population has the internet, the only country in the world.

FUN FACTS

Every minute 345 new internet virus threats are released — or almost six a second.

It is estimated that it would take 400 billion trees to print out the Internet.

It would take 136 billion sheets of A4 paper to print out the entire internet.

The largest Internet café is ChamsCity Digital Mall in Abuja, Nigeria, offering 1,027 computer terminals.

54.9% of the Internet is in English, 5.9% is in Russian, 5.7% is in German, 5% is in Japanese, and 4.6% is in Spanish.

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