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Sunday, 31 July 2011

Alexandria

Alexander the Great conquered Egypt in 332 BC and immediately set about founding a great new city named in his honor - Alexandria - at the mouth of the River Nile in 332BC. The coastal city was designed to handle Mediterranean shipping between Greece, which was the center of Alexander's empire, and his new Egyptian province.

The world's first state-funded scientific institution was founded in 330 BC in Alexandria by Ptolemy I. It comprised a museum, teaching facilities, and a library. The Library, which was further expanded by Ptolemy II was once the largest library in the world. At one time it contained up to 700,000 scrolls but parts of the collection, were destroyed by fire and in 642 AD the remainder were destroyed by Arab invaders.


A lighthouse, which was a tower built between 280 and 247 BC on the island of Pharos at Alexandria was one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. With a height variously estimated at somewhere in-between 393 and 450 ft, it was for many centuries among the tallest manmade structures on Earth.

The first college of technology was founded in Alexandria in 105 BC.

The Battle of Alexandria was fought on July 31, 30 BC between the forces of Octavian (later known as Augustus) and Mark Antony during the Final War of the Roman Republic. Though Antony managed to narrowly defeat the Roman forces, he was plagued by desertions and the following day. Octavian launched a second, ultimately successful, invasion of Egypt. He entered Alexandria on August 1, 30 bringing it under the control of the Roman Republic. Antony committed suicide following the desertion of his fleet, as did Egypt's last Pharaoh Cleopatra nine days after the battle.

A tsunami devastated Alexandria on July 21, 365 AD. The tsunami was caused by the Crete earthquake estimated to be 8.0 on the Richter scale. Five thousand people perished in Alexandria, and 45,000 more died outside the city.

Side view of The Temple of Taposiris Magna. By Aymantarek24 -  Wikipedia

The current library at Alexandria has a recorded memory of the all the web pages on every website on the Internet since it started in 1996.

With a population of 4.1 million (2005), Alexandria is the second-largest city of Egypt and the largest city lying directly on the Mediterranean coast.

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