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Wednesday, 17 August 2011

Arithmetic

In ancient China, Egypt, Babylon, and early civilizations generally, arithmetic was used for commercial purposes, records of taxation, and astronomy.

During the Dark Ages in Europe, knowledge of arithmetic was preserved in India and later among the Arabs.

It wasn't until about 500AD that some Indian mathematicians suggested the use of the symbol “0” meaning zero or nothing.

With the development of trade and overseas exploration in Europe. Hindu-Arabic numerals replaced Roman numerals, allowing calculations to be made on paper, instead of by the abacus.

The invention of logarithms by Scottish mathematician John Napier in 1614 and of the slide rule ten years later helped make the manipulation of the arithmetic processes easier.

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